The late call for papers advertises vacancies in the IMC programme, giving medievalists the opportunity to propose a paper and present at the Congress.
Below are the sessions which already have vacancies. If you have a paper which you think would fit any of these sessions, email your abstract to email@example.com indicating clearly which session you would like to apply for.
Additional papers will appear in the Addenda/Corrigenda you will receive in your registration pack on arrival.
103 Spolia: Real and Imagined
This paper aims to investigate the use of _spolia_ as a building material in the Late Antique and Byzantine fortifications of Anatolia through the selected case studies of Ancyra/Ankara and Nicaea/Iznik. The major modification to the walls of Iznik, originally built in the 3rd century, is attributed to Michael III, or precisely to the year 858 by the inscriptions. The 8th and 9th-century phases of the walls of Iznik are characterized by rich quantities of _spolia_ alternating with bands of brick. Similarly, the rebuilding of the inner circuit of the Ankara fortifications, built of large blocks of _spolia_ and alternating courses of brick and rubble stone, is attributed to the year 859.
The practice of _spolia_, i.e., the reuse of construction materials removed from earlier buildings, expanded in close association with the spread of Christianity, and became a distinctive feature of architecture in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The motivations underlying _spolia_ and spoliation have long been debated, with the practice acquiring both positive and negative connotations. Using archaeological and textual evidence, this paper will thus attempt to explore several different approaches towards the practice of spoliation and architectural reuse, with particular emphasis on ‘architectural recycling’ as a means of maintaining a physical record of the city in the process of urban transformation, with examples from Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean.
246 Games for Teaching, Impact, and Research, II: Creating Games about the Middle Ages
As games have become more firmly embedded as historical educational tools, substantial developments in custom educational physical and digital games have occurred. These games, built by academics and students, take important steps away from traditional ‘edutainment’ games and harness the mechanical and visual structures of the media form to provide introductions to new periods and themes and support for classroom learning. They can provide different learning experience from commercial games. This session considers the development of various such games and their utility in the classroom.
546 Playing the Middle Ages, I: Race, Religion, and Nationalism in Digital Games
Issues surrounding portrayals of race, religion, and nationalism frequently form the core of controversies around modern games set in the Middle Ages. These themes are frequently seized upon by extremist groups to promote their own image of the period. However, these concepts and the heritage which surrounds them can produce rich stories and gameplay experiences, promoting new understandings of the Middle Ages and creating better games. The papers within this session address some of the positive and negative impact of portrayals of race, religion, and nationalism across a range of gaming genres.
605 Form, Function, and Meetings with God: Transforming Religious Spaces in Late Antiquity
It presents an important rupestrian group – unpublished until now – made up of more than one hundred hermitages located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. They are linked to the arrival and installation of a monastic community of seventy monks headed by Abbot Donato at the end of the 5th century, coming from North Africa and arriving in Spain fleeing the Vandals. This fact is known thanks to Saint Ildefonso, which also highlights the eremitical formation of the religious _Cuiusdam eremitae fertur_ in Africa _extitisse discipulus_. The hermitages discovered are concentrated in a specific area located in the NE of the province of Cuenca (Spain). This area counts on a great archaeological diversity, with evidences in all the chronological periods. Nevertheless the works of investigation are scarce and focused in Roman time. The evidence of rock building have gone unnoticed by scholars.
The _American Journal of Archaeology_ published two articles examining horseshoe arches in Spain from the Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages: ‘The Origin of the Horseshoe Arch in Northern Spain’, by Leicester B. Holland in 1918, and ‘The Appearance of the
Horseshoe Arch in Western Europe’, by Ernest T. Dewald in 1922, both showing the problematic research on this type of arch.
This paper makes no attempt to argue which architectural antecedents gave rise to the horseshoe arch used in Spain, mainly in Visigothic architecture. My research questions are: which aspects of the horseshoe arch are the most important for understanding its architectural development? Is it possible to establish a relationship between the horseshoe arch of early Christian architecture in Hispania and the rest of the Mediterranean basin (mainly with Byzantium)? The architectural function and bas-relief iconography, together with both archaeological and written evidence, form the basis for studying this type of arch. I also consider the use of the horseshoe arch in objects like epigraphical documents with an engraved horseshoe arch and the Canon Tables of the Rabbula Gospels.
625 Chaucerian Materiality
In this paper, I would like to focus on Chaucer’s treatment of the materiality of memory. Indeed, the poet shows that our memory is very much shaped and defined by the objects carrying it. The _House of Fame_ illustrates the physical transformation of our memory, its re-imagining and re-shaping when it is materialized in one medium or another (sculpture, manuscript…). Such an interest is of special importance for a poet who knew that the reception of his poetry was bound to evolve as it slowly stopped to be orally transmitted and started to rely on a physical and written transmission. Chaucer thus feared that his work might be misinterpreted or misunderstood if not reproduced properly under his supervision.
In this paper, I explore the interconnected ecological and metaphorical aspects of the ‘grisly rokkes blake’ in Chaucer’s ‘Franklin’s Tale’. I begin with Dorigen’s statement that the rocks benefit neither ‘man, ne bryd, ne beest’, and consider whether 14th-century scientific literature supports viewing this as a moment of ecological consciousness. Drawing on Timothy Morton’s ‘dark ecology’, I argue that the rocks are a grisly black box, and represent the opacity of non-human nature. I conclude by proposing that the ‘Franklin’s Tale’ confronts the limitations of human craft through its depictions of natural objects eluding human understanding.
805 Manuscripts: Iconography, Images, and Material Copies
The aim of the presentation is to outline the problem of understanding and representing the interior of the earth (terrestrial depths) in early medieval iconography of the Last Judgement. This issue, as it seems, has not yet been analyzed in the literature of the subject. Although there are many studies on the vision of the Underworld, and then, in the tradition of the Christian East and West, on the vision of Hell and Paradise, they focus primarily on theological and anthropological view, and not on the problem of representation of the interior of the earth from a geographical or geological point of view. Therefore, it appears very interesting for us analyze how ancient and early medieval people imagined the ‘material side’ of the Underworld and whether they represented the elements of the real world in their visions. I will try to analyze this problem by tracing chosen written sources as well as selected examples of iconography, especially ancient landscape painting and Byzantine and Latin iconography of the Last Judgement (together with the scenes of visions of Hell and scenes of Anastasis). The chosen problem is a continuation and development of the issues analyzed in the author’s previous studies. It aims to present the chosen issue, to outline the current status of research and to pose questions and hypotheses, asking for opinions and suggestions. In this way it could provide for the author the basis for her further studies.
Instead of the usual female allegories, narrative school scenes featuring male figures were used to represent the Liberal Arts in some of the most important Gothic ensembles of the Iberian Peninsula. The main goals of this paper are to carry out an analysis of this peculiarity within the theoretical framework of medieval visual rhetoric and, at the same time, to reflect on the role played by the dynamics of artistic workmanship – mainly on the ‘copy’ of prestigious models – on the configuration of this visual tradition.
814 The Origins of the Military-Religious Orders, IV: Foundation, Re-Foundation, and Recreation
January 2020 will mark the 900th anniversary of the Church Council of Nablūs in January 1120, which was probably the setting for the foundation of the Order of the Temple. Four sessions, organised in commemoration of this event, will explore various aspects of the origins of the Military-Religious Orders, transnational institutions which developed in Latin Christendom in the early twelfth century in the wake of the First Crusade. This final session explores the continuing foundation, re-foundation and recreation of Military-Religious Orders during the thirteenth century and up to the present day.
819 Re-Using Material, II: Old Material, New Interpretation
Materials can be nearly everlasting, even though they long lost their usefulness for the purpose they were first created. This panels discusses the re-use of material objects, and the new interpretation of objects. In particular, the cultural historical perspective of interpreting and giving meaning is used in this approach to materials from the past.
1027 Materialising Script: Epigraphy and Inscription
The runic script is a primarily epigraphic script carved into objects of various material like wood, stone or metal. It was the dominant writing system in Scandinavia until the end of the 10th century, when it was gradually replaced by the Latin alphabet and manuscript culture. This leads to a new form of runic writing called _Runica manuscripta_, which resulted from the transposition of a formerly epigraphic writing system into the medium manuscript. This paper compares the medieval Bryggen inscriptions on wood with _Runica manuscripta_ and discusses how the change of material and medium affected the runic script.
La communication a pour objectif de nourrir la discussion sur la place des ‘matérialities’ dans l’approche de la culture écrite : si une matière durable compte comme une spécificité de l’écriture épigraphique, que réalise la rencontre écriture-matière au-delà de la seule pérennité d’un message?
Dans l’Espagne médiévale (XIIe-XIVes.), des inscriptions se limitant à une date seule – les datationes – permettent d’approcher au plus près l’articulation écriture-matière-environnement. Traditionnellement, la date accompagne la mention de l’événement, elle précise la commémoration. Pour les datationes, s’il y a date, les conditions d’existence, factuelles, de cette date sont tues. La matière et son contexte deviennent a priori les seuls éléments permettant de donner du sens à cette chrono-graphie. Partant de ces traces épigraphiques réduites à la seule évocation d’un point du temps sans l’identifier, la communication vient questionner les possibilités qu’offre la matière et son contexte face à l’implicite de l’écriture épigraphique : la matière qui est aussi support (chapiteau, mur de l’église) suffit-elle par exemple à unir date et lieu ?
1128 Jewish-Christian and Jewish-Islamic Interaction in South Arabia and the Horn of Africa
The Middle Ages are commonly viewed as a time when Jews lived subordinate to either Christian or Islamic rule, as a segregated group. However, a number of Late Antique and medieval examples demonstrate that Jewish-Christian and Jewish-Islamic relations in these time periods were much more complex and varied than what is often believed to be the norm. This panel focuses on two neighboring and interconnected regions which feature some of the most unique examples of Jewish interaction with Christians and Muslims – South Arabia and the Horn of Africa. These include the 6th-century Aksumite-Himyarite war, which was portrayed as a war between Christianity and Judaism, and later commemorated in Christian and Islamic compositions, as well as the numerous wars between factions of the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews) and the Christian Solomonic Kingdom (Ethiopia, 15th-17th centuries). The session seeks to shed new light on Jewish-Christian and Jewish-Islamic interaction in these regions in the Middle Ages.
1305 Inside and Outside the Medieval European Castle
The Grand Master’s Palace, seat of the Teutonic Order 1309-1457, is one of the most outstanding medieval residential buildings. It impresses with its excellent state of preservation and numerous functional features. In addition, historical sources provide detailed information about the way the residence was used, which concerns both the public events (chapter and council meetings, court dinners, trials, reception of guests and envoys) as well as the Grand Master’s private life. The paper will give an overview of these events behind the palace walls and finally describes how particular rooms and building areas were used for the different activities and how they interact with each other.
The ornamentation at the palace of Stirling Castle, Scotland saw the combination of both the mundane and luxuriant to stunning effect. The proposed paper will examine three key questions related to architectural enrichment at the Palace: How were materials used to create decorative elements? Where were the materials sourced?
What remains of the decorative schemes? A key theme of the paper will be how the mundane and the luxuriant were combined, for example local stone coloured with foreign pigments and ironwork being gilded. By answering these questions, evidence will be presented showing that the material culture of medieval Scotland combined a wide range of materials to create decorative schemes.
1504 Religious Devotion and the Art of Late Gothic Manuscripts
In lay practice of saints’ devotion in late medieval Christianity, adherents were directed to employ complex mental and perceptual processes designed to reveal likenesses with their subject of worship. Devotion to a saint who had characteristics that the worshipper could identify with enabled a dialogue and an imagined solidarity, a first step toward self-introspection. Anne of Brittany (1477-1514), queen of France due to her marriage to two regents, commissioned in the first years of the 16th-century a book of hours in which two images of St Ursula are rendered (the Grandes Heures, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 9474). Additionally, she requested to reshape a lavish nef, which she got as a present from the citizens of Tours, into a reliquary of St Ursula. The mental mechanism of selecting a preferred saint, which later on results in commissioning artworks assisting a noble worshipper in his/her devotion, is a less explored subject. In this paper I will outline/trace the similarities between the Saint’s _vita_ and the life narrative of the Queen, and then move to describe the artistic ways in which they have been used, enhanced and accentuated. This kind of analysis can shed light on the way devotees related and responded to religious perceptions and the creative ways by which they demonstrated their devotion.
Between 1405 and 1406, an extraordinary version of the French translation of Augustine’s _City of God_ entered the collection of Duke John of Berry, the uncle of the French king. An original collaboration between scribes, illuminators, decorators, and a supervising _libraire_ (book seller), Collins 1945-65-1 demonstrates the power of visual imagery and page layout and design as instruments of interpretative transformation. This paper will analyze the innovative relationship between the manuscript’s text and visual program, identifying the mechanisms through which this manuscript mediates the text of the _Cité de Dieu_ and prompts an expansion of the reader’s horizon of expectations.
1630 Materiality and Medievalism, II: Heritage and Imagined Pasts and Places
The second session in this strand on materiality and medievalism is focused on heritage and the unique problems faced when a place, people, or object is of both academic and public importance. This session explores how public image and historical memory can influence and distort the accuracy and medieval meaning of these objects and places and the relationships they had to medieval people.
1647 Translating the Bible, Reading, and Salvation, II: The Austrian Translator of the Bible and His Oeuvre – From the Manuscript into the World Wide Web
The first half of the 14th century was a time of deep spiritual disturbance and concern within central Europe. The three sessions ‘Translating the Bible’ will explore various impacts of this discomposure that found its expression in new approaches to the Holy Scripture. One session will focus on the oeuvre of the Austrian Translator of the Bible, an anonymous layman in today’s Austria, who translated large parts of the Bible into the vernacular in order to secure correct understanding for lay readers. His widely unedited work represents maybe the central stage of the German Bible before Luther. This oeuvre is now in the center of the interacademic long-term project ‘The Austrian Bible Translator – The Word of God in German’, which will provide an hybrid edition. Another session explores translations of the Passion and possibilities of guiding the audience via explanations and illuminations. The third session will concentrate on the materiality of the sources and introduce methods of research such as analysis of watermarks, research databases, and tools to trace back provenances.