Architecture is one of the key means of expression of religious ideals and values, powerfully locally rooted and yet subject to wider currents of thought and influence, whether orthodox or contestatory.
The ‘early gothic’ portals produced in northern France during the first half of the 12th century emphasise didactic clarity and the humanity of Christ. Their tympanum scenes have been widely interpreted as a sign of theological uniformity in defiance of emerging heresies and perceived threats to core doctrine. This paper weighs up the existing scholarship and seeks to offer a fresh perspective on the varied margins of these scenes, emphasising continuity with past and regional modes of portal design, and questioning our ability to read the visual consequences of heretical movements in monumental art during this period.
In the early-12th century, provoked in part by the perceived failures of the papal reform movement to purify the Church, heretical preachers began to amass large popular followings, which posed a great threat to the Church’s authority. This paper will examine how three related Benedictine Romanesque portals in south western France, namely those of Saint-Pierre at Moissac, Sainte-Marie at Souillac and Saint-Pierre at Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne, (c. 1120-1140), can be interpreted as visual propaganda in the Church’s fight against heresy. Located facing marketplaces, these monumental doorways not only addressed those faithful who entered the church but also anyone conducting business in the market.
Spolia can described as building material or decorative sculpture of belong to previous period re-use later period on new monuments. Spolia is common tradition in Medieval Period in Anatolia. Spolia was used commonly in both Byzantine and also Seljuk architectural period.
In Byzantine and Seljuk Architecture using spolia has got a special meaning. Cultural signs of previous periods were gone in Byzantine Time. We can see that it was using same meaning in Seljuk time too. Roman Empire had got a wide effect on Byzantine Culture. Spolia material usage was important with regard to Roman effects on Byzantine architecture. These effects didn’t suddenly removal from Byzantine society. Because if so did happen it, cultural connection with Rome would be rejected. In this context, re-using of this materials were symbolized their root of connect with its. As a similarly Seljuk’s reuse also cultural heritage of previous cultures in their self buildings. As sometimes these using is an architectural obligation, sometimes it is represent former culture in their cultures. For this reason using of spolia has got two means: Cultural Heritage and Cultural Syncretism.
Both Byzantine and Seljuk Period in Anatolia using of spolia is in same frame. In this paper will be focus on the fact that does using of spolia a cultural heresy or its necessary?