|Maria Elisabeth Dorninger, Institut für Germanistik, Universität Salzburg
Stefan Engels, Institut für Kirchenmusik, Kunstuniversität Graz
Nils Holger Petersen, Centre for the Study of the Cultural Heritage of Medieval Rituals, Københavns Universitet
The use of vernacular languages can often be associated with reformations or heresies. The vernacular language was, for instance, used in the liturgy by heretics in Bohemia. In many medieval liturgical books, however, texts in the vernacular are found which are not heretical, as for example in the diocese of Salzburg. In the early Middle Age we know about a Kyrie eleison in Slavonian. Later on, the Augustinian monks in Salzburg esteemed the active participation of the whole people in the liturgy. We find vernacular songs first of all in the visitatio sepulchri (the Christ ist erstanden) for Easter; furthermore in the Easter Vespers as a combination of Christ ist erstanden with the sequence Victimae paschali laudes at the procession. In the late Middle Ages, liturgical books often contained many vernacular songs; even traditional liturgical texts were sometimes found in translations, for instance hymns; similarly also German rubrics in prayer books by nuns or in collections of rituals or varia. At about 1400, the anonymous 'Monk of Salzburg' wrote a whole series of translations of Gregorian hymns in German. It is known that a teacher and friend of Martin Luther became abbot of the Benedictine monastery St Peter in Salzburg in 1522. It is quite possible, that Luther was influenced by him in his German liturgical songs.
Since the 1970s, the issue of variation in transmission has been one of the major concerns of medieval musicologists. The purpose of this paper is to argue for an understanding of variation in music as a social practice which both reflects and structures social relations and to propose some guidelines for musical analysis which can be profitably used to investigate it. This will be attempted by reworking the linguistic differentiation between the system (the underlying level of rules and constraints which sustain communication), the norm (the usual and expected way of communicating something for a certain group or individual, hence the coexistence of different social and individual norms) and the speech (each specific act of communication, which can reinforce different norms or deviate them, even if respecting the system). Treated as concrete instances within a multi-layered scenario of communicative liberties and constraints, instances of musical variation can be more clearly envisaged as part of a vast array of social practices. These propositions will be substantiated by the analysis of variation in the 11th-century Aquitanian Graduals of Saint-Yrieix, Gaillac, Toulouse and Narbonne, using the Offertory and its verses as sample evidence. In conclusion, it will be proposed that variation in each of these sources is related to the diverse social world which each Gradual was attempting to create by reproducing or transforming a network of social relations.
The Eucharistic controversies evolving primarily in the 11th century around Berengar of Tours with Lanfranc as one of his main opponents also led to new liturgical features as already witnessed in the Monastic Constitutions of Lanfranc and – most famously – in the 13th to 14th-century establishment of the new feast of Corpus Christi. Even later, in the Roman Catholic Church, Eucharistic litanies were to emphasize orthodoxy against what was perceived as Protestant heresies. In this paper I propose to review main elements of the liturgico-musical legacy of the idea of transubstantiation and 'real presence' as the orthodox outcome of the Eucharistic discussions over centuries for the medieval Latin Church and its Roman Catholic continuation after the reformations.