Armies of the late medieval period were governed by a series of conventions, informing their operational and tactical procedures. Many of these rules were codified and cemented through instructional manuals and memoirs. However, such guidelines were not always followed, with differences between English and European military thought and technology leading to divergent practices. This was particularly the case with rebellions, which altered both the means and conduct of warfare. This paper will consider the extent to which the battles associated with English rebellions followed or broke the rules of contemporary warfare, and the resultant implications for studying the country’s military methods.
In common with other 15th-century Welsh poetry the works of Guto’r Glyn contain many references to weapons. In Guto’s case a high proportion of these relate to archery, possibly reflecting his own experiences as an archer in the Hundred Years War. However, most of his archery references are metaphorical and nowhere do his poems mention his own prowess with a bow. Instead it is his sword which is mentioned, in three different poems, suggesting that he wished to be remembered not as an archer-poet but as a soldier-poet, or simply as a poet and worthy companion of his noble patrons.