The appearance of Veronica and her veil in the Middle English poem The Siege of Jerusalem is largely considered to be the turning point in the narrative, offering a glimpse of the miraculous and transformative powers of Christianity in a text awash with blood. It further transforms the text as the ekphrastic rendering of the relic effectively evokes familiar visual images of the Veil. Among relics, the Veil held a unique position in the cultural imagination of the Middle Ages. The veil was a contact relic, but one which had preserved Christ’s likeness. The painterly quality of the relic is such that it lent itself to reproduction, as pilgrim badges, on misericords, in stained glass, in paintings large and small. Recovering those familiar and quotidian visual contexts for this scene of the Veronica clarifies the rationale of how this image contributes to the meaning of the poem.
Thomas Betson changed his writing style in his letters. For example, he used ‘would’ to his future mother and ‘will’ to his very young future wife. This distinction showed the difference of the degree of politeness and friendliness toward them. On the other hand, not only Betson but also other letter writers sometimes used comment clauses, which also gave the effect of changing the tone of the statement. In this paper, I would like to show the comment clauses used by the writers of the Stonor letters and try to classify them according to their sociolinguistic functions. This paper is an updated version of the paper which I was to read at IMC2012.