This paper analyses the conflict between royal and aristocratic lordship on the Irish frontier, which climaxed in open warfare between the barons and crown in 1207. In particular, it explores the significance of the episode for King John’s destruction of the Lord of Limerick, William de Briouze and in the context of baronial calls for royal reform on the eve of Magna Carta. Beginning with an assault on Limerick by the Irish justiciar in the winter of 1206-7, and ending with an aborted royal expedition to Ireland in 1208, the Irish conflict is an essential ingredient to our understanding of King John’s reign.
During 11th century Kurdistan area was considered as a battlefield for Byzantinye and Seljuk armies. So, that area was influenced by those two super powers at that time. In reality, Seljuks army crawled from central Asian desert towards the fertile lands of plenty water, escaping from drought. Therefore, in the year 1040 AD for instance, the Seljuk vanguards started invading north east Kurdistan. They within 15 years settled themselves in that region. Between the years 1042-1051 AD they conquered more lands by their savage ways. In the year 1071 AD they defeated the Byzantine army near Manzikert of northern Kurdistan under the leadership of Sultan Alp-Arselan. They captured the Emperor Romanus IV who led the Byzantine army. In the course of that wars between two superpowers on the lands of Kurdistan which was considered as the bridge, linking the east and west, both sides destroyed many towns and Kurdish princedoms. So, the Kurds were suffering a lot of life and capital losses, beside instability escaped to Kurdistan mountains in order to avoid the harm.
The Battle of London, fought during the unsuccessful Wyatt Rebellion of 1554, has often been dismissed as lacking broader militarily significance on account of its small size and brief duration. Despite these factors, the existence of extensive source material, documenting both the engagement and its environment, enables the action’s terrain, as well as the equipment and tactics of its participants, to be accurately reconstructed. This paper will explore both the methodologies involved in this process and the insights offered by its findings, contributing to a greater comprehension of English battlefield tactics and performance during a key transitional period in warfare.