Norman royal authority in Sicily was challenged from its beginnings in 1130 until its conquest by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1194. A wide variety of techniques were used by the Norman kings to support their rule, including art, architecture, and material culture. Based on recent research in glass studies, the objects known as Hedwig Beakers, associated with St Hedwig of Silesia, should be included in the Norman projection of royal identity. Discussion of the Holy Roman Emperor, members of the Andechs family in his court, and St Hedwig herself will reveal how this transformation took place.
According to both English and Croatian sources the English King Richard I, while returning from his Third Crusade adventure, found refuge from shipwreck on the coast of a small island outside of the town of Dubrovnik, called Lokrum. In true medieval fashion the king made a vow, which had a long-lasting impact on the ecclesiastical matters there. This paper will address the issues of facts versus fiction regarding this case, discern which were the relations between the English king and Dubrovnik, and try to analyze how this episode was used in the later Middle Ages to resolve some ecclesiastical disputes.
Although the history of the Crusades is well researched theme, this doesn’t discourage historians to write on this part of the Middle Ages. However, the Western historiography didn’t pay enough attention to the aforementioned theme. Apart from a few works on this issue, the Croatian historiography hasn’t researched this problem either. And so, there is enough space to reevaluate existing hypotheses and present some key points. In this paper the popular legends made after the crusade era, viewing of the Other and reception of the Crusades on the East Adriatic Coast will be presented, from their beginnings to the participation of the Hungarian King Andrew II in the Fifth Crusade.