This paper argues that the Primary Chronicle of Kiev, written at the beginning of the 12th century, was a full-fledged continuator of the tradition of Christian universal chronicles, where typologies between the historical accidents and those of the sacred texts were made. The Chronicle drew its typology from the Revelation of Pseudo-Methodius, a popular apocalypse widely known both in Byzantium and in Western Europe at age of the Crusades. The Revelation fundamentally directed the narrative lay out of the Chronicle, presenting Svyatopolk Izyaslavich (ruled 1096–1113) and his follower Vladimir Monomakh (ruled 1113–1125) in the role of the Last Emperor in the last battles before the World’s End.
A quarter century ago, François Dolbeau suggested that we reconsider the traditional dating of the Bucolics of Marcus Valerius, traditionally assigned to the late 12th century. He pointed out that the two pieces of external evidence we have for Valerius places him in the 6th century, in the time of Justinian. Taking up Dolbeau’s challenge, this paper will present the internal and textual evidence for a 6th-century date: detailed analysis of fontes will show that Valerius uses no poetry later than the 6th century, and knows a number of classical authors who were not read in the Middle Ages.
This most populous of Oriental peoples, who migrated into medieval Hungary, i.e. Central Eastern Europe in the 10th to 12th centuries was mentioned as Bessi, Bisseni, and Cuni in the chronicles. Local people occasionally called them Tatars as well. Debates on their exact ethnicity was based on some few words in Byzantine sources. However, in royal charters and other legal documents there are proper names and toponyms to be found witnessing to two of their original ethnonyms beside their integration in a medieval Christian society. These names also settle the debate about their exact ethnicity and language affinity and show how well-organized immigrants became adjusted to local conditions, a situation, typical for Hungary in Central Eastern Europe.
Metaphorical usage of kinship terms is a distinctive trait of many medieval societies. In Old Rus this social practice had an extraordinary wide expansion. This paper claims to examine kinship terms, found in inner correspondence of Russian princes and also in messages to their foreign allies from 12th to 16th centuries. The meaning of these terms transforms from the concept of brotherhood of all Rurikids in the time of pre-mongol Rus to the indication of hierarchy level in relation to the Grand Prince or Tzar in Muscovite period. Addressing to foreign allies has its own features at all the stages of development.