A number of concerns identified with the ‘Golden Age’ of the Islamic empire influenced Muslims’ enthusiasm for Jihad, for Muslim traditions confined the cultural program to the institution of Jihad. Hence, a set of imperial traditions changed over time into deep beliefs. In this process, chroniclers’ references to the impact of an all-encompassing Islamic Identity on the magnitude of Jihad’s movements made it an attractive alternative to the underlying imperial successful economics. The point is that the impact of the Crusaders challenged Muslims’ re-conceptualization of the idea of the ‘Holy Islamic Empire’. In return, it constituted the magnitude of Muslims’ counter-crusades.
The Christian-Islamic strife in medieval Iberian Peninsula has been widely discussed, but the historiographical depictions of this phenomenon have often been overlooked. Medieval Portuguese genealogical literature in particular has been largely ignored at an international level. This paper explores the representations of the Christian-Islamic conflict in the medieval Portuguese genealogical narratives (Livros de Linhagens). Their political functionality is analysed through a categorization of the depictions of the war, inquiring whether they present it as an expansionist conflict or an act of restoration of a past order. This paper exposes how Portuguese aristocratic memories of the encounter with Islam were conditioned by political interests.
In the middle of the 9th century, three intellectuals – living in three different parts of the world and writing in three different languages – each engaged with the same classical text: the Categories of Aristotle. Writing in Arabic, Greek, and Latin respectively, Al-Kindi, Photius, and John Scottus Eriugena, each read and were influenced by this logical treatise. Rather than providing a philosophical analysis of Aristotelian logic within a single cultural realm, this paper contextualizes the interest in logic as it functioned in the different intellectual milieus and thus offers a new and meaningful comparison between early medieval centers of learning.