The paper provides a comparative overview of the impact of conciliar legislation – specifically canon 11 – on cathedral schools and instructors (magistri and scholastici) in Hungary, Poland, and Bohemia in the century following the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). Whether the impact was expansive or more nuanced, who were the agents of this reform, and what were its immediate and long term results are questions that provide a road map into the integrative process of Lateran reform.
Sebastian Brant, well-known as an author of the satire Das Narrenschiff (Ship of Fools), was a scholar of many faces. His main occupation was as a jurist, with the title of doctor utrisque iuris, and a town clerk, but even before, during his study of law, he was a poet, editor, and translator who translated many Latin works into German. He was very conscious of the different roles of Latin and vernacular languages; Latin was basically for scholars and the clergy, German for the laity. However, his translation and publication of some Latin didactic works not only enabled them to be read by the laity. Their contents also were adopted in his original work Das Narrenschiff, especially in the additional chapter about the table manners.
In the history of Georgia, 11th-12th centuries are known as the golden age. It was the period characterized by real reforms and renewal. During this period, the reformer King David the Builder (1089-1125) managed to get rid of the outside enemy (Turks-Seljuks), as well as implement significant reforms domestically. A number of significant reforms were carried out in the fields of culture and education. David founded the Georgia Academy and Ikalto Academy that can be considered the major change introduced in the field of education. These Academies were the first higher education institutions in Georgia. Contemporaries referred to Gelati as ‘Other Athens’ and ‘second Jerusalem’. It should be noted that the academies were not focused only on teaching. Rather, among the functions of the academies was to carry out large scale translations, scientific works. My goal is to present the Comparative Study, making a comparative analysis between the teaching disciplines, methods and principles of Georgian academies and European higher education system of the same historical period.
Following Alex J. Novikoff’s suggestion in The Medieval Culture of Disputation (2013) that the 13th-century English poem The Owl and the Nightingale adapts scholastic discourse in its use of Aristotelian logic, my paper explores the renewal of verbal debates in 14th-century Middle English poetry. Specifically, I examine the two extant in British Library, Additional MS 31042, Winner and Waster and The Parliament of the Thre Ages, to argue that, while the subject matter debated may vary, questions about the usefulness of disputation persist. This paper does not maintain that debate poetry exists as a singular generic category nor does it seek to delineate generic expectations; rather, it demonstrates that both poems appeal to an understanding of ‘disputation’ as more than a metaphorical discourse of opposites, reforming earlier scholastic interests for a popular audience.