Manufacturing and use of jewellery for personal adornment was typical of the German people who attributed a primary role to precious objects to highlight their social status. This habit emerges in a relevant way studing the grave materials of Castel Trosino and Nocera Umbra – two Early Medieval cemeteries – where the ranks of the tombs are clearly evidenced, as well as the difference in the quality of the jewels produced of German and Byzantine tastes which evolved in parallel without damaging each other. Even though the refined manufacture and the precious materials evident in the Byzantine objects would appeal to the Lombard people, it is also true that imitating the ‘fashion of Constantinople’ was accompanied by a clear allusion of the wealth and power of the Byzantine court. It is of little importance that the sophistication of the artifacts in the Byzantine style found in the cemeteries of Castel Trosino and Nocera Umbra were not up to the level of the production of the workshops in Constantinople, what constituted a relevant factor was the call to a clear model belonging to a well-formed stylistic language easily decoded and equipped with its own symbology.
Experience of food is intimately shaped by context: table settings, cutlery, and plate provide many connections that enrich the meal. Elite dining in 14th-century England was the occasion for display, and what was on the tables of the great found its mirror well down the social scale. Although little survives of the plate that came to table, evidence for customs of use comes from inventories of elite goods. This paper considers the dinner services of Queen Isabella, Queen Philippa, and other members of the upper classes in the 14th century as a contribution to the study of food culture.
The works of medieval Catalan authors, such as Ramon Llull, Joanot Martorell, and Francesc Eiximenis, as well as historiographical sources, contain numerous references to the phenomenon of dance. Some literal quotations from these texts are included in the Diccionari de la dansa, dels entremesos I dels instruments sonadors (1936) compiled by the musicologist Francesc Pujol and the ethnologist Joan Amades. However, these examples constitute only the tip of the iceberg that we intend to explore. It is our objective to search systematically for references to dance in the works of the abovementioned authors, of other medieval classics such as Jordi de Sant Jordi, Ausiàs March, Isabel de Villena, Anselm Turmeda, Jaume Roig, and Vicent Ferrer and also in texts of less known or even anonymous authors. These references will be identified with a view of gaining a clearer picture of the description and evaluation of dances in medieval and early modern Catalan texts.
The dance is usually framed in a medieval feudal context, with particular reference to the lyric tradition of the troubadours. In the context of theatrical literature, the recovery of this tradition is not only an expression of an intertextual practice devoted to the memory feudal. The medieval theater, which is basically an urban theater, requires the use of traditional motifs dance the influence of new cultural categories. In this way, the interaction between dance and theater allows you to analyze the transformations that involve the medieval society, in particular, from the economic renaissance of the 12th or 13th century.