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IMC 2015: Sessions

Session 516: Leaving the Solitude: Hermits and Reform

Tuesday 7 July 2015, 09.00-10.30

Organisers:Daniela Bianca Hoffmann, Historisches Institut, Universität Mannheim
Meta Niederkorn-Bruck, Institut für Geschichte, Universität Wien
Moderator/Chair:Meta Niederkorn-Bruck, Institut für Geschichte, Universität Wien
Paper 516-aWilliam of Modena and John of Toledo: A Hermit and a Monk as Papal Agents of Reform and Renewal
(Language: English)
Björn Gebert, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Darmstadt, Technische Universität Darmstadt
Index terms: Ecclesiastical History, Monasticism, Religious Life
Paper 516-bReform and Conflict: The Grandmontine Rule in Its Historical Context
(Language: English)
Daniela Bianca Hoffmann, Historisches Institut, Universität Mannheim
Index terms: Monasticism, Religious Life
Paper 516-cFive Steps Downhill: The Typological Sequence of Carthusian Architectural Adaption to New Surroundings
(Language: English)
Elke Nagel, Fakultät für Architektur, Technische Universität München
Index terms: Architecture - Religious, Monasticism, Religious Life

Over time, even hermits had to introduce reforms. This session is about hermits who were involved with reforms as well as reforms in heremitical orders. Reforms often caused special problems for hermits, because they frequently led to involvement with the 'world' and a conflict with heremitical ideals.

Paper -a:
Both regulars with an affinity for the Carthusian Order, the two prelates acted as papal agents in quite different ways. While William of Modena spent years far away from the papal court and his former charterhouse to renew and stabilise the church organisation in northeastern Europe, John of Toledo held strong ties with monasticism by reforming and supporting religious orders frequently.

Paper -b:
In the 1180s the Order of Grandmont suffered from a severe conflict between its clercs and lay brothers, which led to a call for reforms and a revision of the Grandmontine Rule. But the new version of the rule (the one known today) mirrored only the agenda of the party which won the favour of the Pope.

Paper -c:
The credo 'stat crux, dum volvitur orbis' may apply to the order itself, but constitutive renewal appears in the architectural solutions of the monasteries. Choosing less remote places of settlement, the Carthusians had to adapt their specific architecture to create the required 'desert' artificially.