During the late 13th century the cleric Simon de Keza wrote the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum. In the appendix he addresses the problem of foreign nobles (extranei nobiles, or nobiles advenae) and the men of the court, anticipating the social change of ‘Dante’s century’ and observing the rising adversity between the old nobles and the new nobles created as a reward for faithful services. The Roman law elements of possession (corpus and animus) are brought into discussion in this study of social mutations and lawful immigration revealing the basis of the concept of the king’s familiars developed in the early 14th century.
Hibernia, the Latin name of Ireland, was never attached as a prouincia to the Roman Empire. In the first half of the 20th century, especially after 1916, due to political purposes and nationalist fervor, this was made an important issue for the imagination of a ideal Celtic Irish past with little or even no bond to the Roman world, an interpretation that continued to have some strength in subsequent decades. Nowadays, however, Irish historiography has looked at the evidence in a different way, assuming a considerable proximity between Hibernia and what could be called romanitas. Taking this into consideration, this paper aims to analyze the bilingual/biliteral Roman-and-Ogham inscribed stones from (Post) Roman Britain in order to contribute a little to the discussion of the interaction and sharing of identities and alterity across the Irish Sea from a historical perspective.