Henry V was by the grace of God king of England, France, and lord of Ireland. There’s no doubt that in production of chronicles in the 15th century he was a great king: his victories in campaigns inside French territory helped a consolidating process of identity speech in a context of monarchy affirmation. This paper aims to analyse the memory production of Henry V in chronicles produced by the Augustinian Friar John Capgrave, The Book of Illustrious Henries and The Chronicles of England. In these works the author exalts warrior, justice and devotional virtues of Henry V and produces a clear delegitimization speech of the ‘other’ in favour of the king’s figure. This ‘other’ is represented as the enemies of the king, kingdom, faith and virtues. In the narrative by John Capgrave, this ‘other’ is represented particularly by the figure of the French in a context of political struggles in the Hundred Years War. Our challenge is to analyse the relation between the image of Henry V, the ‘other’ speech and an identity in England in the Late Middle Ages.
Emperor Frederick III, long decried as an inadequately inert ruler, has seen a scholarly revival over the last decades, which established him as an active decision-maker and, thus, vastly improved his reputation. However, equating rule with decision-making might be a modern fallacy. Based on contemporary views of Frederick III, his court and his political strategies (envoys’ relations, historiography), this paper seeks to historicise ‘decisions’ and ‘decision-making’ as particular – and, it turns out, quite rare – modes of late medieval political action. Instead, imperial rule under Frederick III saw a network-stabilizing politics of patience as the preferable option.
The meeting in Krakow, Poland, in 1364, hosted by Polish king Casimir III, is traditionally called the Congress of Krakow. It included some of the leading political figures of 14th-century east central Europe, especially Emperor Charles IV and Louis of Anjou, King of Hungary. Each is regarded in their respective national traditions as its greatest medieval ruler. In addition to their political accomplishments, Casimir, Charles, and Louis all founded universities and established legal codes. This paper seeks to view their accomplishments in a comparative framework and to place them in their larger regional context.