This proposal intends to examine the way the otherness set up the social and spacial articulation in Toledo during the 11th-12th centuries. Starting with Islamic Toledo, I will analyse legal sources of the period, pointing out the importance of the juridical-social application of the terms dar al-harb and dar al-islam. I will also examine how this division not only remains, but increases, under the reign of the Castilian-Leonese kings (Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII). When a new border appears between Christians (Mozárabes and Christians from the north). In order to achieve my objectives I will use legal and literary sources from an anthropological point of view.
The establishment of the northern frontier between Portugal and León and Castile, in the early 12th century, meant the appearance of the concept of otherness in this region. Nevertheless, a dichotomy was frequently attached to this concept since the northern Iberian cross border territory also represented an area of long-lasting social, cultural, and economic interaction. The main aim of this paper is to analyse how the creation and consolidation of this frontier was lived and perceived by those institutions and communities who lived there, and also how were these border territories used in both kingdoms’ identity construction strategies, and how important was the idea of otherness for those.
The aim of this paper is to present the research done about the parias phenomenon focused in the Catalonian region. We will trace the payments received by the Catalonian counties (mainly Barcelona, but also Urgell and Cerdaña) from the Islamic taifa kingdoms during the 11th century, their chronology, and where the money received as parias went. After examining the sources, we discover that the county of Barcelona used the money wisely to strengthen and expand the borders with Al-Andalus and also how this county was able to acquire the hegemony subduing the other counties by redistributing the money earned from the weak Islamic taifa kingdoms.