The group of late antique Roman ivories known as consular diptychs are primarily known to historians as commemorative objects for a Roman official’s ascent to the consulship. However, these ivories often bear traces of centuries of subsequent re-inscription by medieval Christians. By investigating their reuse in the context of medieval liturgical memoria, this paper argues that consular diptychs testify to broader concerns for establishing community identity and dynastic legitimacy in the former western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Ordo Romanus Primus is the earliest description of how the Pope celebrated Mass in the Roman rite. Careful study of the early textual tradition demonstrates the reasons a new edition is needed. Studies of MSS and related texts reveal that the second, longer recension originated in Germany in the 740s. The earlier short recension was probably created in a monastery connected to the Irish or Anglo-Saxon missions to the continent. Thus the text did not come directly from Rome itself. What results is a much clearer picture of the earliest history of the northern adoption of the Roman rite.
The entries of kings and their families in the early medieval libri memoriales carry complex intervowen layers of time – past, present, and secular as well as heavenly future. Indeed, the presentation of names as arranged lists designs a past, through which present demands, ideas, and beliefs are assured and by which the designed past is positioned within the secular history determined by God. By adding the dimension of ‘constructing the past’ to liturgical commemoration the past is always present and becomes at the same time a ‘trans-temporal’ character. In this paper the designed entries will be analysed as a political statement of the Carolingian authority beyond the time.