In all eras art of memory uses artificial spaces and principles of order to systematize all kinds of knowledge to be saved in memory. In the course of recent research it turned out, that – beside that knowledge itself – also mnemotechnical aids are historically changeable – in relation to current knowledge systems, state of education, and practical use. Against this background, the paper will examine the case study of a memory treatise of Italian origin, which shows not only excellent familiarity with the academic and urban environment of Bologna, but also great sovereignty in dealing with ancient example literature as well as with the typical upper Italian Aristotelism of the early 15th century. On his way over the Alps and into different regions the treatise replaces some of such original characteristics by others, which fit into alternative areas of academic or spiritual activities.
The dramatic compression in the Croxton Play of the Sacrament centralizes two sets of memory in laity. On the one hand, it evokes the ritual experience of Eucharist in the quotidian world through the theatrical spectatorship; while on the other, when the Jews begin to torture the Host in various physical ways, the performance also reenacts the moment of crucifixion in the Passion sequence, which is situated a larger time scheme, namely the Scriptural history that is repeatedly transmitted from the written text to the laity aurality. Also, criticism seems to keep rewriting the history of the play following the similar track: it either explores the intertextual resonance of Scriptures and other contemporary medieval dramas as the works of Sister Nicholas Maltman, Donnalee Dox, and Stephen Spector have done; or it endeavors to reconstruct the analogous experience of spectatorship in a different circumstance like Seth Lerer. The paper will discuss the intersection of memory both in the written and in the spectatorship to see how the contested idea of transubstantiation is transformed into the metonymic representation of the dramatized moment.
The late medieval carol is an important indigenous musical form that is abundant in sources from the late 14th to the early 16th century. Often thought of as a song type that only addresses Christmas themes, medieval carols, in fact, cover a variety of subject matter. This paper seeks to discuss the musical and textual form of the carol as a device to aid memory and reinforce ideas, with a particular focus on the extant political carols and their representation of English identity during this turbulent period of history.