The P. Nora’s lieux de mémoire were understood as material or symbolic elements participating in founding a hypothetical French identity. Such elements were used by the medieval urban communities to develop their own identity memory. In Guyenne, the medieval archives of Libourne and Saint-Macaire show varied objectives of memorial construction: the two towns each produced a cartulary, in the form of a codex or enrolled, but their objectives were very different (sacralisation of the community, attachment to the English or French administration, conflicting relations with Bordeaux or Langon…). In Rions, written memory has disappeared, but the monumental vestiges constitute an urban memory affirming community power.
Years ago, the ensemble of three privileges issued on 26 September 1212 in Basel was labelled as first charters that Frederick II of Sicily dated on the German soil. Another, less known fact is that the interpretation of these privileges is neither simple nor clear. Nevertheless, the charter given to Premysl Ottokar I, King of Bohemia, even entered Czech national memory and under the name of the Golden Bull of Sicily became the proof that the ‘Czech state’ gained full or almost full independence on the Holy Roman Empire as early as the Middle Ages. Thus, this document was sacralised as a lieu de memoir of the modern Czech nation and became an elementary part of education.