In the 12th-century Arthurian romances Erec et Enide and The Knight with the Lion, first written down by Chretien de Troyes in French and retold in other languages, medicines created by Morgan le Faye play a role at crucial points in the stories. Even in the absence of the skilled physician, these things transmit miraculous healing through a physical medium. This paper compares the text of the romances with recipes in medical manuscripts in an attempt to construe what medieval storytellers and audiences imagined these marvelous medicaments to be.
In the Middle Ages, the marshes of England posed both risks and opportunities for their visitors and inhabitants. This paper examines the medieval perception of wetlands through a wide variety of sources. Medical literature, religious texts and imagery, and legends and folklore all provide evidence for medieval understandings of marshes as places of danger and ill-health. However, this did not stop people from settling in wetlands. This paper will consider the uses of wetlands in medieval Sussex and Kent, and the ways in which their inhabitants were able to survive, and thrive, in these regions.
Tacuinum Sanitatis , one of the handbooks of diet and regimen sanitatis in medieval Europe, was originally written in Arabic in the form of table by Christian physician Ibn Butlan in 11th-century Bagdad. It contained 40 tables, each of which was composed of seven items, which means that it related 280 items. When it was translated into Latin in Europe with the title of Tacuinum Sanitatis, the composition was not so changed. In the last quarter of 14th century, however, a new type of Tacuinum Sanitatis appeared in Italy, with images of items and only shorter explanations. They lost the form ofthe table and consisted smaller number of items. This paper will consider changes of items in new type of manuscripts.