The aim of this paper is to compare three medieval spaces in which payments linked to military duress took place: the Iberian Peninsula in the 11th century, the payments given to the Vikings by Frankia and England, and the interaction between Khazars and Byzantines. We will prove how those tribute payments helped the underdeveloped States who got them to strengthen their power by developing clientelism, building fortresses, and introducing monetary systems.
Silver represented the Crown of Aragon’s main economic interest for the conquest of the Regnum Sardiniae. Since the early stage of the conquest, the Catalan-Aragonese kingdom re-established the silver mining and manufacturing processes in the minting land of Iglesias, as well as the coining process in the Pisan mint of Villa di Chiesa (today Iglesias). The current study examines the project by the Crown of Aragon of transforming the island into the focal centre of an ambitious monetary policy in the Mediterranean. The importance of this project is confirmed by the attempts by the Catalan-Aragonese king Peter IV to create a new mint in Castell de Caller (Cagliari), capital of the Regnum Sardiniae. The king, indeed, strove to make the factory the main minting centre for the golden florin of Aragon, the very first golden coin of the Iberian confederation.
This paper aims to present the whole picture of credits in the medieval Italian city, focusing on the practices of the moneylenders, who were, in a broad sense, referring to the bankers or exchangers, the pawnbrokers as well as the ordinary citizens. By examining the book of a pawnbroker, the private memorandum, the notarial books, and the court books in the 14th century, it reveals 1) the size and functions of credits, 2) the figures of lenders and borrowers, 3) the network of credits, 4) the relationship of money and goods, 5) the guarantee systems of credit circulation, etc., in a Tuscan city, Lucca, in the period of Christian moneylenders, that is, before the diffusion of Jewish usuries and the establishment of the public pawn bank (Monte di Pietà) in the 15th century.