Between 1275 and 1277, several Navarrese nobles gave receipts to the French governor of Navarre acknowledging the monetary compensation they received for both tangible and intangible expenses during the Castilian siege of Viana in 1274. I argue that these receipts not only reveal both the logistical and material costs of war, such as equine deaths and damaged buildings, but also show how ruling elites remunerated their subjects for intangible losses and valued their subjects’ military service. Moreover, I highlight these unique and unstudied documents while probing the overlooked period in Navarrese history when Philip III of France controlled the Iberian kingdom on behalf of his young future daughter-in-law, Jeanne de Navarre.
Hunting played a crucial role in knights’ lives. It was an important way for knights to occupy their leisure and to procure protein-rich food. There was an intimate connection between hunting and warfare. Finally, hunting was a highly ritualized event that was crucial for formation of one’s identity and affirmation of one’s power and authority. When crusaders came to the Middle East, they brought their hunting practices with them. These practices and interpretations of these practices underwent several transformations. Most obviously, crusaders encountered new fauna. Also, criticism of hunting became much more prominent in the context of ‘holy wars’. As a result, prohibitions against hunting were sometimes imposed. Thus, knightly and crusader values came into conflict. The presence of Muslim, Byzantine and Eastern Christian enemies, neighbors and allies further complicated the picture. The Franks grew aware that local elites’ hunting culture was similar to theirs. At the same time, hunting presented a danger of ambush and captivity.
Byzantine ideology traditionally focused on victory. Defeat which could bring forth economic, demographic, and political changes provoked responses on a material (e.g. new tactics and moves) and ideological level. Its interpretation required also an ideological mobility. This paper addresses the 9th-century flexible ideological response to defeat, oscillating between the traditional one of defeat happening of God’s dispensation on account of people’s sins and a newer, ‘militaristic’ one, minimizing or nullifying defeat by focusing on individual valour (e.g. legends of brave soldier/officer saving the emperor) which will lead to the 10th-century Byzantine expansion.