My paper argues that the crusading movement was a significant contributor to the social and political landscape of Capetian France, and suggests that Philip’s strong support and participation in the crusading movement proved crucial to the emergence of a centralized royal bureaucracy. In asserting the organic nature of crusading in the development of Capetian monarchical authority under Philip, this paper offers a focused reassessment of the intersection of crusading and Capetian monarchical interests that challenges the traditional paradigm of analysis that regards increased bureaucratization as evidence of secularization. Instead, it argues that the wider sociocultural milieu of crusading provided the necessary conditions for the success of Philip’s expansion of Capetian political authority through a firm association of the monarchy with crusading. My paper argues that the strengthening of this relationship lay at the heart of Philip’s ideological program, and that his reign engaged with the cultural and political impact of crusading to reframe the discourse of medieval sovereignty.
My paper will examine whether 12th-century authors, commentating on defeats suffered in the Latin East, still considered territory to be Christian after it had been lost to the Muslim forces. Through analysis of contemporary source material, including papal bulls, letters sent to the West, chronicles, annals, and troubadours songs, I look at how ideas about the intrinsic ‘Christianness’ of the Holy Land, arising from its historical importance, compete with the reality of temporary ownership. Does enemy occupation eradicate the previously held sense of societal belonging to a place in favour of its total exclusion from Christendom?
When an apparently sudden epidemic broke out in Barbarosssa’s army before Rome in 1167, this sensation occupied whole Europe. Voices were quickly heard blaming the emperor for the event. He had expelled pope Alexander II from Rome in order to appoint Paschalis III. Only the imperial court remained silent. Gottfried von Viterbo’s poem as a source has so far been neglected. In it, the author evokes five cosmological inner images based on Ad Herennium before the reader’s inner eye. These images are intended to prove that whoever died had been rejected by God from the border of honor imperii because of disobedience.