The semi-dry zone located on the south-west shores of the Lake Mareotis is an important borderland of Egypt. It used to be adapted for wine production on a broad scale in the Greco-Roman period. Its product was highly esteemed by antique writers, such as Strabo and Athanasius the Great. Vineyards were also a significant feature under the Byzantine's rule when the region was famous for its sanctuary of Saint Menas. Due to numerous ceramological surveys, the wine production is believed to have become extinct quickly after the Muslim conquest. However, recent archaeological records, medieval written sources and toponymic clues impel us to reconsider the position of the Mareotic region in early Islamic Egypt. Although many various reasons must be taken into consideration, the new border delimitation was a crucial factor for economic changes.
The rural landscape around Rome in the Middle Ages changed the dynamics of settlement after the end of the villa-system.The study conducted in a rural area located near Rome has highlighted a strong dynamism in the settlement structures in the Middle Ages. These changes led to the foundation of fortified villages: the castles. Starting from the 10th century, people start living with different habits, surrounded by walls, fenced in castles. In this period, the rural landscape is characterized by borders constituted by stone walls. This paper aims to explain how inhabitants adapted to the environment by changing their habits.
This contribution explores what's on the borders of lands, in the Carolingian times. To do so, we'll present how charters of the 9th century in central France (Auvergne and Velay) define the limitation of properties. We'll explain which lands are named without borders and which ones are mostly presented with defined delimitations. The different ways used on that time to detail borders of lands will be presented, and the links existing with local territorial frontiers checked. We'll look for some Carolingian specificities compared to the influence of agrimensores, even if the exact links between those ways is hard to determine.