The paper examines the socio-political interaction models between the Cuman-Qīpchaq tribes and their diverse sedentary neighbors (11th-13th Century). A comparison between the contacts of the Cuman-Qīpchaq Groupings with Rus’ and Byzantium in Eastern Europe and with the Empire of the Khwārazmshāhs in Central Asia is offered. A third factor in these complex relations are the cities in the no-man’s land between the nomadic and the sedentary world such as Sudaq in Crimea and Jand in Central Asia. The research is based mainly upon medieval narrative sources such as the Primary Chronicle, the Hypatian Cronicle, the works of Anna Comnena and Choniates for Eastern Europe, as well as the accounts of Juvaynī and Rasīd al-Dīn for Central Asia.
The creating of the Lviv Latin Metropolitanate was the response of the Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło to military activity of knights of the Teutonic Order in Eastern Europe. As alternative to this activity, the Lviv Metropolitan Jan Rzeszowski was to take part in organization of anti-Hussites Crusades. In addition, the Metropolitanate was supposed to be the platform for spread of Catholic faith through Inquisition service, Church sacraments, and the local Church Union in Lithuanian Žemaitija, Moldavia, Kyiv, Novgorod the Great, and Pskov.
The story of a petty lord of Genoese origin, who ruled over a fortress on the Strait of Kerch, is the point of departure for an analysis of ethno-religious identities in the Black Sea in the mid-15th century, an era of major political and religious change in the region. Genoese sources about the Black Sea explicitly develop the ancient notion of Crimea as a border between Europe and Asia, and are some of the earliest instances of the15th-century revival of the idea of Europe.