In the aftermath the Tibetan invasion of the western territories, a Turkic group called Shatuo relocated to the central and northern provinces of the Tang empire, and in particular in northern Hedong (Shanxi). Since their appearance at the western border in the early ninth century, in the ensuing decades the Shatuo were recruited as retainers in the mobile armies on the payroll of provincial and prefectural governors. Their leading clan was able to take advantage of the relative mobility that characterized the Tang military ranks and achieve merit-based advancement through the military ranks. This paper sets out to analyze the events that led to the predominance of the Shatuo and their strategies of competition for recognition and privileges within the Tang military system.
This paper describes a geo-strategically war of George Kastrioti named ‘Scanderbeg’ who in the Latin documents was called ‘Dominus Albaniae’ who leaded many successful battles against Ottomans in the co-existed border in today’s North Macedonia. Growing up in his father’s principality in Kruja city-center he was taught by native teachers, priests, and war instructors in the Western style of warship. During the 1430s as a hostage in Ottoman court in Adrianople he became very famous with his knowledge and bravery in battles taught by oriental scholars and instructors where he managed both West and East war techniques and as a result Sultan Murat II promoted George giving him military grade ‘Bey’ (High military knight grade-officer). Because Sultan rejected to give him his father’s land, Scanderbeg in collaboration with his native Albanians made the resurrection at the Battle of Nish (1443) left Ottoman army and got back in Albania conquering his principality and declaring the war to Ottoman Empire. In this paper will be shown three main Battles in 1444 which he leaded successfully against Ottomans in the Macedonian border dishonoring Mahomet II by his experienced commanders ‘Pashas’ who got back shameful in Ottoman court.
One of the most successful and infamous female networks credited with playing a direct part in 16th-century revolt against English colonisation was headed by two Scottish highland military chiefs: Lady Agnes Campbell, and her daughter Fionnuala O’Donnell. They arrived in Ireland in 1569 when they both undertook political marriages to the two most powerful Ulster chiefs, uniting Scottish Highland women with Ulster chiefs. They went on to unite the septs and clans against England and were central to both military and diplomatic history in this period.