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IMC 2023: Sessions

Session 614: Social Elites in Central Europe: Intellectual and Literary Formation at the End of the Middle Ages

Tuesday 4 July 2023, 11.15-12.45

Moderator/Chair:Piotr Oliński, Instytut Historii i Archiwistyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń
Paper 614-aLes rois polyglottes? Comment les rois européens du Moyen Âge ont-ils communiqué avec leurs sujets?
(Language: Français)
Jerzy Pysiak, Historical Institute, Uniwersytet Waszawski
Index terms: Literacy and Orality, Politics and Diplomacy
Paper 614-bA Patient's Travel Narrative: Jan of Jenštejn's Illnesses and Treatments in Bohemia and Beyond
(Language: English)
Patrick Outhwaite, Department of English, McGill University, Québec
Index terms: Language and Literature - Latin, Manuscripts and Palaeography, Medicine, Religious Life
Paper 614-cStephen the Great of Moldavia, 1457-1504: Networks of Power, Entanglements of Politics
(Language: English)
Andrei Pogăciaș, Independent Scholar, Bucharest
Index terms: Mentalities, Military History, Political Thought, Politics and Diplomacy
Abstract

Paper -a:
Le Psautier d'Hedwige d'Anjou, reine de Pologne (1384-1399), princesse hongroise, fut écrit en trois langues: le latin, l'allemand et le polonais. Charles IV de Luxembourg, roi de Bohême et empereur germanique, croyait qu'il sied à chaque souverain du Saint-Empire de maîtriser au moins cinq langues pour être un bon empereur: le latin, l'allemand, l'italien, le français et le slave. Si pour le Bas Moyen Âge, où les monarchies poliethniques des Angevins, Luxembourgs et Jagellons émergent, le multilinguisme des souverains - ou, au moins, de leurs cours respectives, paraît une nécessité manifeste - les rois européens semblent manier plus d'une langue pour communiquer avec leurs sujets depuis l'âge Carolingien, comme en témoigne le célèbre Serment de Strasbourg de Charles le Chauve et Louis le Germanique (842). S'y ajoute l'apparition des langues quasi-universelles de communication dans deux zones de l'Europe latine aux XIIIe-XVe siècles: le français dans les pays occidentaux et méridionaux, ainsi que l'allemand dans l'Europe du Centre-Est, se substituant de plus en plus au latin, jusqu'ici dominant, comme langues de cour, de diplomatie et des belles-lettres.

Paper -b:
In 1390, the Archbishop of Prague, Jan of Jenštejn, wrote De bono mortis, a text that describes a series of severe illnesses that he suffered on a journey to visit the Papal Curia. Jenštejn reports that he visited some of the most famous physicians of the late medieval period, such as John Jacobi, but all were unable to cure him. He blames their failure on the foreign complexion of his Bohemian body, which physicians were not used to treating. This paper explores the complexities of treating travelling patients and the ways in which medical theories dealt with ideas of otherness.

Paper -c:
The age of Moldavian Voivode Stephen the Great (1457-1504) is regarded as one of the most intense and glorious in Romanian history. Starting as a small ruler over a battered country, Stephen found himself surrounded by enemies from all sides. Trying to avoid major conflicts, he paid tribute to the Ottomans, became vassal to the Hungarians and Poles, then defeated the Ottomans, Hungarians, Poles, Wallachians, and Tatars. Called by the Pope Athleta Christi, he became part of a larger alliance comprising Venice and Anatolian tribes, among others. Towards the end of his reign, he had to rely on an alliance with the Ottomans, Tatars, Russia, and Hungary against the Poles, Lithuanians, and Teutons. With the help of a map and medieval chronicles and documents, I will explain how politics was done in Eastern Europe in this period.