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IMC 2023: Sessions

Session 704: Ideologies and Identities in Conquest and Crusade

Tuesday 4 July 2023, 14.15-15.45

Moderator/Chairs:Jessalynn Bird, Independent Scholar, Chicago
Sini Kangas, School of Social Sciences & Humanities, University of Tampere
Paper 704-aThe Self and the Others, or Christians and Pagans in the Chronicles of the Teutonic Order of the 14th Century
(Language: English)
Yanina Ryier, Wydział Pedagogiczny, Instytut Neofilologii, Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
Index terms: Archives and Sources, Crusades, Historiography - Medieval, Pagan Religions
Paper 704-bA Crusading State of Mind: Capetian Crusading and Visions of Mediterranean Sovereignty in the 12th and 13th Centuries
(Language: English)
Darren Henry-Noel, Department of History Queen's University Kingston
Index terms: Crusades, Mentalities, Political Thought, Politics and Diplomacy
Paper 704-cThe Colonial Era Roots of the Medieval Islamic 'Counter-Crusade'
(Language: English)
James Wilson, Zukunftskolleg / Fach Geschichte, Universität Konstanz
Index terms: Crusades, Historiography - Modern Scholarship, Islamic and Arabic Studies, Manuscripts and Palaeography
Paper 704-dLatin Legal Treatises and the Populations of the Levant, 1099-1291
(Language: English)
Jennifer Pearce, School of Arts & Humanities, Nottingham Trent University
Index terms: Crusades, Islamic and Arabic Studies, Law, Social History

Paper -a:
In the late 13th and 14th centuries, Lithuania became one of the strongest enemies of the Teutonic Order. The confrontation between Christian and Pagan worlds (the Teutonic Order and Lithuania) is among the key issues presented by the Order's chroniclers of this epoch. The main aim of the paper is to analyse the image of self and the other - a Christian man, an ally, and a pagan one, an enemy - presented in the chronicles of the Teutonic Order of the 14th century. Among the questions to be answered within this study are: primary criteria for evaluating the self and the others; features of Christian and pagans presented in the narratives; the crimes committed by the pagans of Lithuania in Christian lands and the issue of divine retribution.

Paper -b:
By the mid-13th century, the Capetians were seen as the natural protectors of Outremer, the trans-Mediterranean community of Frankish elites that emerged during the heyday of the crusading movement in the Central Middle Ages. Crusading facilitated the expansion of the French into the Mediterranean political and economic sphere, and created new opportunities for the redefinition of claims to Capetian sacrality drawn from a transnational ideology of Mediterranean rulership. The support and leadership of the Capetian dynasty for the crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries represented a major investment in the economic, cultural, and political vision of Mediterranean sovereignty as a reflection of French rule which indelibly strengthened the position of the Capetians in Latin Christendom. The efforts of French rulers to develop an ideology of sacral Capetian kingship were mediated by a transregional Mediterranean context of political theory and socio-economic networks rooted in shared experiences of crusading memory and participation.

Paper -c:
The term 'Counter-Crusade' is used to characterise almost all Muslim responses to Crusader entanglements in the near east (1098-1291). Coined by René Grousset in 1934, it remains the main analytical framework for those engaging with Islamic perspectives of the Crusades. This paper details how the 'Counter-Crusade' paradigm is rooted in the abridged edition and translation of select medieval Arabic manuscripts by a network of Parisian Orientalists in the 19th century. As these translations remain widely used today, it is important to consider the impact of this editorial process upon the underlying meaning of the original Arabic texts.

Paper -d:
The First Crusade culminated in 1099 with the establishment of four Latin Christian polities in the Levant. A small Latin population lived amongst and ruled over the region's religiously and ethnically heterogeneous populations until 1291, when their last Levantine territory fell. Scholarly opinions regarding the nature and quality of cross-cultural relationships between the Latins and their Levantine subjects have been shaped by colonialism, orientalism, postcolonialism, and intercultural conflict in the modern Levant, and by historians' reliance on a traditional canon of crusades sources. In this paper, such historical relationships are reappraised through an analysis of the representation and treatment of Levantine groups in Latin legal treatises.