This is an investigation of the infamous ‘affair’ between Joan of England and William de Braose based on events leading up to and following Llywelyn ap Iorwerth’s discovery of their relationship. I will consider Joan’s direct involvement in this notorious scandal by examining her significance as a political ‘pawn’ contextualised within 13th-century Anglo-Welsh relations. In order to explore the possible reasons behind her banishment and subsequent reinstatement, I will look at her position within Llywelyn’s court before and after events. I will also discuss how her reputation has ultimately been affected, both during her lifetime and after, based on the political partiality of contemporary sources and the evaluations of previous historians.
Contemporary historians of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily barely mention the women behind the Hauteville rulers. Of Adelaide del Vasto, widow of Roger I and mother of Roger II, little is recorded, yet the transformation of Sicily from an Arabian colony into a rich and powerful base for the future Norman kingdom began during her regency. An examination of texts and modern histories can provide information on her contribution to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily.
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