One of the biggest tasks of Muhammad I was to repair the destroyed relationships among Andalusi elite, and to deal with their mutual distrust, hatred, rivalries, and suspicions. His renewal program consisted mainly of killing and murdering those who opposed him and incorporating those who didn’t. His contemporary biographers regarded this as a necessity for the Andalusi society. Muhammad II then followed his father’s footsteps and dismissed all those who might challenge the family supremacy. The aim of the paper is to show that this laid the groundwork for the undisputed rule of the Nasrids in Granada for centuries.
The paper examines the significance of a reform to the administration of justice in late medieval Italy and its impact upon certain artworks. It argues that reform of prosecution procedures following the introduction of the inquisitio process from the medieval papal inquisition into the secular justice system, placed a new and increasing emphasis on the role of the judge within legal proceedings. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, several artworks are analysed to establish that images could be used to offer moral instruction in visual form to those exercising secular and judicial authority, and to articulate impartiality and anti-corruption norms.
As the Yorkist lords were preparing to return to England in early 1460, the Davies’ English Chronicle records a political ballad being posted on the gates of Canterbury. Modern critics have described the poem as a difficult piece and as one whose meaning likely escaped most of its audience. However, I argue that the poem resonated with the early English audience in Canterbury and elsewhere. Two later poems, ‘The Battle of Northampton’ composed sometime soon after July 1460 and ‘The Twelve Letters that Saved England’ written around July 1461, both copy lines directly from the Canterbury ballad. I argue that these later poems, in the act of taking lines from the earlier ballad, are attempting to renew the rhetorical and political meaning of the ballad for their own political situation.