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IMC 2015: Sessions

Session 507: Transformation at the Dawn of Gregorian Reform: The Pope, the College of Cardinals, and the Legate

Tuesday 7 July 2015, 09.00-10.30

Organisers:Brenda M. Bolton, University of London
Jill A. Franklin, Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain & Ireland (CRSBI), London
Moderator/Chair:Lindy Grant, Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Reading
Paper 507-a'Nourished since childhood at Ambrosian sources': The Milanese Pope Alexander II, 1061-1073, and the Architecture of Reform
(Language: English)
Jill A. Franklin, Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain & Ireland (CRSBI), London
Index terms: Architecture - Religious, Ecclesiastical History
Paper 507-bThe Rise of the Cardinals, c. 1049 - c. 1100: Reform, Reaction, Counsel, Ambition, and Self-Awareness
(Language: English)
Peter Firth, School of History, University of Liverpool
Index terms: Canon Law, Ecclesiastical History, Monasticism, Politics and Diplomacy
Paper 507-cThe Influence of Papal Legates on the Transformation of Spanish Art in the Second Half of the 11th Century
(Language: English)
Rose Walker, Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London
Index terms: Art History - Sculpture, Ecclesiastical History

The second half of the 11th century was remarkable in terms of the governance of the Church. Under Leo IX (1049-54), the papacy began to develop as a diplomatic and administrative force through the delegation of responsibility. A sequence of rigorous, single-minded German, French and Italian reformers occupied the papal throne, heavily influenced by monastic values. Collectively, they established the foundation on which, by the end of the century, the Church was able to conduct negotiations with the empire from a position of authority. Pastoral and sacramental roles came to be combined with administrative duties, as bishops and cardinals were dispatched by the papacy to ensure its decrees were enacted on the ground, to the letter, by the episcopate. There were extraordinary interventions, all aimed at strengthening the integrity of the Church: a bishop and a cardinal were sent as legates to pacify a divisive urban riot in Italy; a network of legates worked to reform the liturgy in Spain through church councils and visual strategies; an authenticated set of newly-fashioned customs circulated by the pope was adopted across Europe by regular canons; and, a group of reform-minded cardinals demonstrated in words and actions a self-awareness of the role they should play within the papacy. The Church hierarchy had begun to cohere as a pan-European political entity, with the pope as its head of state.