Studies on consumption of wine were treated by historians as a luxury part of State of Teutonic Order common life and city trade. To this moment, researchers had marginalized the scale of consumption of wine instead of beer and mead consumption. The most important works written on this topic by international and Polish researchers are by Udo Arnold and Janusz Tandecki. Meanwhile, sources give important information regarding extension, size of production, and also taste of wine which was produced in cities of Pommerania in the 15th century.
This paper will analyze aforementioned aspects, answering to the following questions:
1) How big was the scale of wine trade between Europe and State of Teutonic Order in the 15th century?
2) Which brands of wine were mostly bought and consumed in main cities of the State of Teutonic Order?
3) How big was the scale of trade of home wine (so-called 'Landwein') in the15th century?
Author's studies are based on state and cities accounts, lists of spending and trade plans. During speech the author wants to show the aspect of wine consumption as a significant part of common life and trade, which determined the political position of State of Teutonic Order and its cities in the early modern era.
In the Middle Ages, Turku was the only city in Finland that could engage in international trade. European luxury drinks like wines, beer, and mead were known there, and the town had established connections to Lübeck, Reval, and Danzig. This paper discusses the imported drinks in 16th-century Turku. What were they, where did they come from and what did they cost? What kind of merchants were involved in the alcohol trade and how did the crown regulate the import of drinks? This paper also discusses the changes in import of foreign drinks during the 16th century.
Extensive documentation proves the vine cultivation and the wine production in the Catalan Pyrinees during the middle ages. These documents also tell of the building infrastructure needed for this production. What were the facilities like? We cand find the answer in the analysis of Castelló d'Encús's ruins, in the historical shire of Pallars. According to the analysis of the ruins and the original documents, this paper points to the possibility that in the place, which once had been given by the Counts of Pallars to St John's knights, from the 12th century onwards turned into a huge wine exploitation whose production far exceded the consumption needs of that hamlet.