Session 331: Maritime Linkages
Monday 6 July 2020, 16.30-18.00
|Jessica Tearney-Pearce, Woolf Institute, Cambridge / St John's College, University of Cambridge
|A Sea without Borders?: Using Network Analysis to Study Medieval Mediterranean Trade and Movement, 11th-14th Centuries
Index terms: Computing in Medieval Studies, Geography and Settlement Studies, Islamic and Arabic Studies, Maritime and Naval Studies
|Representing Maritime Communities with Petitionary Language in 14th-Century England: The Case of the Cinque Ports
Index terms: Administration, Maritime and Naval Studies, Politics and Diplomacy
|The Pope's Authority and the Mediation Role of the Holy See in the Resolution of Maritime Conflicts
Index terms: Historiography - Medieval, Law
From the 15th century, with the beginning of the Portuguese expansion, in particular, through the conquest of domains along the African coast, the fledgling Portuguese bourgeoisie seeks new markets and new business opportunities in order to increase its profits through the creation of new trade routes on which it has a predominant influence. Also the Spanish Crown began its expansion, betting on the project of reaching India of Christopher Columbus who, in 1492, discovered the new world. As the political relations between Portugal and the now Kingdom of Castile and Aragon were not always peaceful and in order to avoid a warlike conflict, taking into account the maintenance of peace and non-interference in the occupied territories, Pope Alexander VI's intervention was requested to mediate this conflict.
On May 4, 1493 the bull Inter Coetera was promulgated, in which the regions of exploitation of each of the Iberian nations were delimited, in which the division of the world would be carried out through the delineation of an imaginary line 100 leagues from the island of Cape Verde (in the original draft) and all the lands to the west would be the possession of Spain and to the east would be Portuguese territories.However, John II, for reasons not yet fully clarified, demanded a few months later the revision of the Treaty and a new intervention, by the High Pontiff was requested. On 7 July 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas, which alters the defined limits so that all the lands discovered, up to the limit of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde, would be the Portuguese domain being the other of the Spanish crown.
In this small essay is to be determined the exact contents of the negotiating course for the elaboration of the Bulla Inter Coetera and later of the Treaty of Tordesillas. It is also to be asserted what impact they had in international relations at the time. We also want to expose the position of the main legal doctrine on this matter and the reaction of the other maritime powers to this division of the world and, in particular to the policy of Mare Clausum policy in opposition to the policy of Mare Liberum. It is also important to identify the legal reactions of the other maritime powers such as England, France, and Holland that only in the 16th century began their maritime expansion.